Tihar is a festival for brothers and sisters, but What if you are a brother without a sister or a sister without a brother. Well, you can make one by accepting someone close to you in your relatives. If nothing works, you find one among your friends and neighbors, it becomes almost as if it was real. Tihar is a festival of sisters wishing a long life to their brothers and Tihar is the most popular festival in Nepal, India and in all over world where Hindus have been living .
From the waning moon in between Oct. and Nov, (Kartik), there starts the indigenous Festival Dipawali-Tihar-the light day in Nepal, India and in all over the world. In this year it starts Nov-13-15 2069 Bs. Due to the Tithi disturbance, Crow and Dog worshiping day is joined in a day. We the Nepalese people have glorious history on ‘Himabatkhand.’ The Himabatkhand-Nepal covers the land of Brahmaputra in the east, Hindukush in the west, Kailash-Mansarovar (west-south China) in the north and the Ganga-River in the south. In the past, Nepal was bigger than what it is today. This zone is the origin of the Vedas, Upanishads, Purans and Nitishastra. The region has been irrigating by rivers originating in the Himalaya, several Saints, Sages and renowned Kings. The Bikram Sambat is an original and sign of Nepalese sovereignty where the foreigners could not attack here like India, China and Pakistan.
Exactly, Nepal Sambat and Mahapuja celebrates in just the day of Govardhan Puja (body worshiping organized by Newars) have been celebrating in the time of Dipawali-‘Tihar’ in Nepal. Nepal Sambat was being practiced from the mid time of Lichchhavis to time of nation creator Prithvi Narayan Shah and Ranas. However due to problems in government administration because of confusion with tithis (dates in Nepal Sambat), Chandra Shamsher started- (1962Bs) the Date (Gate) including the existing Thithi, the oldest indigenous-‘Bikram Sambat’ in the country. Even in the system, Tithes were same and only dates of Bikram sambat were added. But Brikram Sambat had been existed from the beginning of the history. There are 354 days in Nepal Sambat and 365 days in Bikram Sambat. Therefore Bikram Sambat became more practical.
Several historians have written regarding Nepal sambat and its’ origin. French scholar Syavan Levy has written that the people revolted against Tibetan king who was ruling Nepal between the 7th and 9th century AD and liberated the country. Nepal Sambat started between 879 and 889 AD. One of the Histotian Prof. Bendal has written about the rule of King Raghav Dev of the Lichhavis and started Nepal Sambat in 880 AD. Historian Balchandra Sharma agrees to this point in his history book Nepalko Aitihasik Ruprekha. According to another scholar of history Dhanbajra Bajracharya, King Raghav dev started this Sambat in honor of Pashupatinath. Italian scholar Laciano Patrek has published a Vansavali which honors King Raghavdev as Pasupati Bhattarak Sambatsar.
Historian Baikuntha Prasad Lakaul has written in Nepali Samacharpatra on Kartik 30, 2058 that no others are as authentic as Gopal Bansawali. Historian Dhundi Raj Bandari wrote in Nepalko Aitihasik Biwechana writes about handwritten Bishnu Darma which mentions King Raghav dev propagating Nepal Sambat 167. This was used as national Sambat in Tibet and Bangal during the Malla reign.
A fable on Shankhadhar has been talked which is hard to believe. On hearing from an astrologer, king Ananda Malla of Bhaktapur (there is no mention of King Anand Malla in hitory of Bhaktapur_ asked to bring sands from Bisnumati River. But, Shankhdhar Sakhwa asked the King’s carrier to deposit the sand to him and carried another sands to King. Historian Bhuvan Lal Pradhan supported the conversion but the arguments later he wrote about gold particles found in the river. So, there is no strong argument about Shankhdhar. Historian Krishna Bahadur Udaya says traditionally and culturally king is called Narayan (God). Narayan carrying Shankha is also called Shankhadhar. Therefore Shankhadhar or Chakradhar is the Narayan or Vishnu (God). So it is convincible that Shankhadharr is nobody but King Raghav Dev. There is no proof on the existence any capitalist named Shankhadhar in Kathmandu at time of King Raghav Dev.
The followers of Shankhdhar has written that south gate at Pahupatinath has a stone statue with Sankha in hand, is the statue of Shankhdhar Sakhwa. But this is not true. This is the statue of King Bhagiratha devotion of Bhagitathi Ganga for water in the earth. Such statues are found in front of 108 Shiv Temples across the River Bagmati, In front of Ganga Mata, Sundhara at Dharahara & Patan Sundhara. We can see such statue stands in front of Swarna Buddha Mandir in Patan also. So, I request that not to try to exercise in futility. The History always follows the real events, evidence, writings, and chronology.
During the festival all the houses in the city and villages are decorated with lit oil lamps. Thus during the night the entire village or city looks like a sparkling diamond. This festival is celebrated in five days. The Nepali festival Tihar is also known by many names such as Dipawali or Bhai Tika or Laxmi Puja or as a festival of lights. It is a five-days festival, which comes soon after the Dashain Festival, and Tihar is all about worshiping of different animals such as crow, dog, cow, and worshiping of the Hindu Goddess of Fortune or Wealth (Goddess Laxmi), and cooking great meals at home, brothers and sisters shopping for gifts, flying kites, decorating homes and streets, playing cards with friends, resting and relaxing, and finally ending the festival with an exchange of a special temporary mark on forehead. The last day of the festival is known as Tika day or popularly known as Bhai Tika (brothers day) To sum up Tihar festival, Tihar is the festival when sisters wish a long life to their brothers (Bhai)!
The first day of Tihar is known as ‘Kag Tihar’, (crow’s day). Crow the messenger of death is honored on the first day of Tihar. The second day is called ‘Kukur Tihar’, (dogs’ day). A dog plays many roles in our society. We pray to the dog to guard our house as he guards the gate of the underworld and to divert destruction away from our homes. On this day you can see dogs running around with garlands on their neck.
Tihar and Laxmi Puja (3rd Tihar Day)- One of the most important day of the festival is Laxmi Puja on which day the Goddess of wealth (Laxmi) is worshiped in every household in the entire Nepali Kingdom by means of Puja, decoration, candle lights, and oil lamps. In this 3rd day of the Tihar Festival, the entire nation becomes an illumination of lights. Pictures and icons of Laxmi Devi (Goddess) are placed and worshiped in a Puja room (or a place in a living room or a dedicated room for worshiping Gods) Puja is performed using flowers, incense, oil lamps, color-powders, bell and money (both notes and coins). Laxmi puja is not only for households but is equally done by Companies. Business-Laxmi-Puja is done exactly the same way as is done in home. Usually company’s cashier performs the puja during which time the entire office including office compounds are lit with various lights including electrical, candle lights, and oil lamps and usually staffs are invited to participate in the Puja procession.
‘Water is a symbol of love. Lakshmi emerging from the water explains that the right type of wealth emerges from love. Divine love is the highest wealth and is like nectar in our life. Lakshmi is depicted as seated on a lotus floating in water. Lotus is a symbol of dispassion. A droplet of water on the lotus leaf moves freely on the surface without any stickiness whatsoever. Similarly, when we are not attached to wealth and not possessive, then what emerges is the wealth that is everlasting and light like a flower. Such wealth is life-supporting, brings abundance and prosperity. Wealth should be moving like water. The purity of water is lost if it is stagnant. Similarly, the usefulness and value of wealth is only when it is shared and is moving. Lakshmi is adorned with golden ornaments and is holding a lotus flower in two hands. This represents a brighter outlook and celebrative aspect of life, a combination of abundance without any possessiveness towards the wealth. Further when wealth is used for the benefit of humanity, it doesn’t bog you down, it is light like a flower. The other two hands hold symbolizing the shower of blessings and indicating that we should have patience. Diwali is a festival of lights. It is a time to honor all aspects of wealth and to illumine our life with the light of spiritual knowledge, the energy that is Mahalakshmi. ‘Maha’ implies great. Mahalakshmi denotes a great wealth, a wealth that includes all the eight aspects, the spiritual wealth that takes care of our well-being in all the three worlds (Adibhautik, adidhaivik and adhyatmik). So on this occasion, we wish health, happiness and prosperity for everybody.’ -(Satish Oberoi)
‘During the festival all the houses in the city and villages are decorated with lit oil lamps. Thus during the night the entire village or city looks like a sparkling diamond. This festival is celebrated in five days starting from the thirteenth day of the waning moon in October. We also refer to tihar as ‘Panchak Yama’ which literally means ‘the five days of the underworld lord’. We also worship ‘yamaraj’ in different forms in these five days. In other words this festival is meant for life and prosperity.-Google online opts.
‘The eve of Laxmi Puja Day is made spectacular not only by lights but also by echoes of a special song including dancing known as Bhailo or Bhailini that’s played only on Tihar and Songs : Deusi Songs (4th Day) Male members sing what is called Deusi or Deusuray in Nepali. Tihar is also the time to re-call their continued wish for a long and a happy life for their brothers. Brothers sit on a floor while sisters perform their Puja. Puja involves following a traditional ritual in which sisters circle brothers three times dripping oil on the floor from a copper pitcher. Afterwards, sisters put oil in brother’s ears and hairs, and then give Tika. Also breaking of walnuts by sisters prior to giving Tika to brothers is also a common practice. After tika, flower garland is put around brother’s neck. Then brothers give tika to sisters in the same fashion. Sisters also receive flower garland around their neck. Brothers give gifts such as clothes or money to sisters while sisters give a special gift. Those without a sister or brother, join relatives or friends for Tika. Sisters pray for their brother’s long life to the Hindu God of Death (Yam Raj). Tihar and Flower Garland is called Malla.
Tihar is probably the best festival of all due to its short holiday period yet packed with much excitement unlike other Nepali festivals! Tihar and Rani Pokharai (Pond)- Rani Pokhara in center of Kathmandu built by Pratap Malla-1649-50, is located at the center of Kathmandu. This famous pond has a small holy temple located at the center. The compound’s door is locked all year around except on the day of Bhai Tika. Those who do not have sisters enter the temple to receive tika from priets. Tihar and Cooking – Sisters prepare unique Nepali meal at home for brothers. This includes making of the famous Nepali bread known as Nepali Roti or Sel or Sel (Roti).-Google online opts on Nepalese festival Tihar.
The most important day of the festival- ‘Laxmi Puja’, early in the morning the cow is worshipped. Tika is put on her head and a garland around her neck then she feasts with delicious food. A cow also symbolizes wealth and she is the most holy animal for Hindus. A cow also symbolizes wealth and she is the most holy animal for Hindus. Cow is holy and venerable animal for Hindus and Buddhists. Hindu and Buddhist scriptures view cow in form of a mother in all over the world especially-Nepal and India. Since the Vedic period cow’s body has been accepted as the spirits of various Gods and Goddess. In many Vedic books has mentioned–’Gao Biswasya Matera’ or Cow is the mother in the world for human being. It is a belief that people who look upon cow with devotion and worship attain blessings and enlightenment. Such conclusions were given precedence in Shrimadbhagawat Mahapurnana (Hindu’s greatest religious book) since long period Gopalas started worshipping cow.
Cow has been declared Nepal’s national animal in Nepal for it has the supreme qualities of animals.’ The cow was venerated as the mother goddess in the early Mediterranean civilizations. The cow became important in Nepal and India, first in the Vedic period, but only as a symbol of wealth. In the Mahabharata, Bhishma-a great religious personality and warrior, also observes that the cow acts as a surrogate mother by providing milk to human beings for the whole life. So the cow is regarded as the mother of the world. Hindus worship cow as Goddess Laxmi. Every year cow is worshipped during the Hindu festival of Tihar. The day of worship is known as Gai Tihare. Cow is worshipped in every household. Cow’s urine and dung is needed during any auspicious occasion. It is Hindu tradition to slather the floor with cow’s dung to make it pure. The cow’s dung can also kill germs; so its use is good for health as well. A cow’s milk is highly nutritious that its advantages are hard to explain.
Hindu’s all over the world, irrespective of their caste, creed and country of origin, Celebrates this festival’-Tihar’-‘Deepawali’. A famous Indian religious revolutionary A. Swami Vivekananda had said- ‘The light of Deepawali is also the light of freedom from control, freedom from tyranny and freedom from all that artificially divides humanity.’ Similarly an Indian religious thinker Basavanna writes–‘the power of knowledge destroys ignorance; the power of light dissipates darkness; the power of truth is foe of all untruths. Several programmer’s are going on not only in Nepal & India– two countries from where this religion was started around 5000 years before but also in other countries like USA, Canada, Fiji, Guyana, Trinidad, Malaysia and a lot more. In India also, this is the only one festival which was celebrated all over the country from TamilNadu to Kashmir and Manipur to Gujarat. In the North India this festival is celebrated as Diwali but in South India it is celebrated as Deepawali. Deepawali, the festival of lights is a harbinger of joy and happiness.
On this day throughout the evening the groups of boys and girls come to houses singing song (Deusi Bhailo) of praise of the goddess and dancing and calling the old story with tune of god and goddess (first day) ‘Bhaili Ram’ then ‘Deusuri Ram’ with great rejoicing and they are taken as guests and given gifts- money, various food and fruits. This day the entire place is lively through out the night. The fourth day is bit different. Today the things you worship depend on your specific cultural background. Normally most of the people perform ‘Govardhan Puja’, (ox worshipping). The ox is worshipped with Tika, garland and then a delicious meal is fed to it.-(Avigya Karki-http://thehimalayanbeacon.com/magazine/2010/11/03/
In the last day, the sister worships their brothers for their prosperous long life worshiping the ‘Yamaraj’ (God of death). The main theme behind Bhai Tika (worshiping brothers) is the sisters praying for their brother’s long life from Yama Raj, god of the underworld. Tihar starts from the thirteenth day of the waning moon in October. We also refer to Tihar as ‘Yama Panchak’ which literally means ‘the five days of the underworld lord’. We also worship ‘Yamaraj’ in different forms in these five days. In other words this festival is meant for life and prosperity. It is a celebration of the triumph of light over darkness and of hope over despair. That the festival is celebrated by people from diverse faiths is a significant affirmation of the great Hindus traditions in the world. Happy Dipawali-2073 Bs (2016)